Equipment & techniques

For our Analysis & Advice projects we can make use of our own infrastructure and that of the TU/e.

Below you can find an overview of (part of) the equipment and techniques available at PTG/e, including a brief description of the equipment or technique.

You can also download a pdf overview of available analysis equipment and techniques.

category

Technique

Confocal raman spectroscopy

Brand

WITec Alpha 300R
Possible laser wavelengths
532nm, 633nm and 785nm
Typical sample size
1 – 1000 μm
Sample types
Most organic and inorganic samples
Identification
Bio-Rad database containing over 25.000 reference spectra
Output
Molecular fingerprint

Raman spectroscopy is similar to infrared spectroscopy in a way that both techniques are used to identify unknown substances. Raman spectroscopy uses a laser to interact with an unknown substance. Confocal Raman microscopy combines the Raman spectroscopy with an optical microscope, which provides extra spatial (vertical and horizontal) resolution of samples. Therefore, this technique is especially useful for microscopic defect analysis. Analyses can be performed in 1D, 2D and 3D with spot sizes of less than 1,0 μm.

Contact angle measurement

Brand

OCA-20 Contact Angle Measuring Instrument (DataPhysics Instruments GmbH)
Liquid
Water, hexadecane
Output
Contact angle

Contact angle measurements can be done on flat surfaces to determine its hydrophobic or hydrophilic behavior. A total of 10 drops will be placed on the to be measured surface which are then imaged by a camera. Via the software the contact angle at the left and right size is than calculated, and gives an average over the 10 droplets. With contact angle measurements a variation of +/- 3° in between measurements is within the tolerance limits.

Dektak

Brand

Bruker DektakXT Stylus profiler
Scan Length Range
55 mm or 200 mm with scan stitching capability
Vertical resolution
1Å (@ 6.55 µm range)
Max sample dimensions
200x200x50 mm
Output
Two-dimensional surface profile measurements; Optional three-dimensional measurement/analyses

Surface profilers are commonly used for measuring thin film thickness, and surface roughness and form in applications ranging from educational research verification to semiconductor process control.
The tip of a stylus gently moves over the surface of a flat surface in one line, leading to a two-dimensional surface profile. When multiple lines next to each other are combined a three-dimensional plot can be derived and analyzed.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Brand

TA Instruments Q2000
Temperature range
-80 to 300 °C
Maximum Heating rate
50 K/min
Typical sample size
3 mg
Type of DSC pans
Aluminum hermetic
Output
Melting point, Glass transition point (Tg) Crystallization Heat capacity

DSC is used to examine the thermal transitions in a polymeric material (e.g. melting point, Tg and crystallization).

Measurements are carried out with a TA Instruments Q2000, which has a temperature range of -80 to 300 °C.
A material sample of as little as 3 mg is sufficient for a measurement.

The results of a DSC measurement can for example be used to determine if a material melts and if so, when.
It can also be used to distinguish between a homopolymer, a copolymer and a blend.

Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA)

Brand

TA Instruments Q800
Temperature range
-140 to 600 °C
Frequency range
0.01 – 200 Hz
Maximum force
18 N
Modes
Dual / single cantilever
3 point bending
Tension film
Compression
Output
Storage and loss modulus, Tan Delta, Frequency, Static/Dynamic force, Discplacement, Shrinkage, Creep, Relaxation, Stress-strain, CTE, TTS.

DMTA is a technique used to analyse the viscoelastic behaviour of a material as a function of temperature or frequency. The DMTA measurement results are used for determining thermal transisions suchs as the glass transition temperature (Tg). A DMTA diagram shows the stifness (storage and loss modulus) as a function of temperature.

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

Brand

PerkinElmer Clarus 690 GC & SQ8T MS
Carrier Gas
Helium
Output
Mass spectrum
Material identification

Gas Chromatography combined with Mass Spectrometry is a way to identify or quantify (semi) volatile compounds. The sample is injected into the GC-MS and separated based on boiling point and affinity with the column. The separated components are than detected with a Mass Spectrometer resulting in a mass spectrum unique for a material. The obtained mass spectra are run through the NIST database to identify the detected components.