Equipment & techniques
For our Analysis & Advice projects we can make use of our own infrastructure and that of the TU/e.
Below you can find an overview of (part of) the equipment and techniques available at PTG/e, including a brief description of the equipment or technique.
You can also download a pdf overview of available analysis equipment and techniques.
Confocal Raman spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy is similar to infrared spectroscopy in a way that both techniques are used to identify unknown substances. Raman spectroscopy uses a laser to interact with an unknown substance. Confocal Raman microscopy combines the Raman spectroscopy with an optical microscope, which provides extra spatial (vertical and horizontal) resolution of samples. Therefore, this technique is especially useful for microscopic defect analysis. Analyses can be performed in 1D, 2D and 3D with spot sizes of less than 1,0 μm.
Contact angle measurements can be done on flat surfaces to determine its hydrophobic or hydrophilic behavior. A total of 10 drops will be placed on the to be measured surface which are then imaged by a camera. Via the software the contact angle at the left and right size is than calculated, and gives an average over the 10 droplets. With contact angle measurements a variation of +/- 3° in between measurements is within the tolerance limits.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Phase change enthalpy
DSC is used to obtain information from materials based on the response to change in temperature. It can reveal phase changes like melting, crystallization or a glass transition, which can help to identify polymers or provide compositional information (particularly when combined with other analytical techniques). The data can also be used to determine a material’s initial processing parameters. Furthermore, various kinetic events can be analyzed, such as curing or oxidation reactions.
Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA)
Glass transition temperature (Tg)
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
DMTA is a technique used to analyze the viscoelastic behavior of a material as a function of temperature of frequency. From the resulting variation in material stiffness, properties such as the glass transition temperature (Tg) can be determined. Transitions corresponding to other molecular motions can be identified as well.
Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
Gas Chromatography combined with Mass Spectrometry is a way to identify or quantify (semi) volatile compounds. The sample is injected into the GC-MS and separated based on boiling point and affinity with the column. The separated components are than detected with a Mass Spectrometer resulting in a mass spectrum unique for a material. The obtained mass spectra are run through the NIST database to identify the detected components.
Impact testing (Izod & Charpy)
The impact test is a standardized method for analyzing the toughness or brittle-fracture sensitivity of a material.
Measurements are carried out with a Zwick/Roell HIT5.5P impact tester equipped with all hammers suitable for use with plastics. Measurements can be carried out at room temperature as per IZOD (ISO 180) or Charpy (ISO 179). The specimens can be notched with the help of a standardized notch-cutting machine.
The (notched) impact value is defined as the energy lost per unit of specimen thickness (at the notch).